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Requirements for zobo drink production

Requirements for zobo drink production

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Zobo as popularly known in Nigeria, is Hibiscus Roselle, which is also in different countries with different names.

It is grown in many countries, such as Nigeria, Burma, Thailand, Lao PDR, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, Niger, the Congo, France, the Gambia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Namibia, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and Zambia.

It has antihypertensive properties. It is also cultivated for the production of bast-fibre from the stem of the plant. The fibre is used as a substitute for jute. Hibiscus, specifically Roselle, has been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, mild laxative, and treatment for cardiac and nerve diseases and cancer.

Market information

There is an enormous demand for various types of drinks and beverages in Nigeria. Many homes and indeed many individuals in Nigeria today consume drinks and beverages on a fairly regular basis. For the elite homes, they constitute part of the basic items on the dinning table. In other cases, drinks and beverages come in handy to serve guests or as a readily affordable drink for quenching thirst. In hotels and restaurants, they are served with almost every meal ordered.

A big contributing factor to increasing demand for drinks and beverages is the fact that Nigerians are lovers of social functions. Major social engagements at weekends and sometimes during week days are ceremonies such as: wedding, burial, birthday party, housewarming, thanksgiving, etc., drinks and beverage are served in all these occasions.

Raw materials

The raw material i.e Roselle Calyces is grown in commercial quantities especially in the northern part of Nigeria. Table 1 shows some states and local government areas in Nigeria where Roselle is readily available in commercial quantity. Other additives/preservatives are readily available in Nigerian industrial raw materials markets.

Machinery and equipment

The major machinery and equipment for Zobo drink production and preservation include: Zobo extractor, Pasteurizer, Filter-Mixer, transfer pump, Holding tank, Shrink wrapper, and accessories.

The cost depends on the capacity which could vary from 500L/day to 5,000L/day.

Small scale zobo drink production plant

Process technology

The basic unit operations in Zobo production and preservation are:

  • Cleaning

The Roselle Calyces are thoroughly cleaned to remove dirt.

  • Weighing

The ingredients i.e. the leaves and the preservatives are weighed appropriately.

  • Washing and Draining

The weighed calyces are washed and allowed to drain.

  • Blanching/Extraction

The washed calyces are blanched in boiling water for extraction.

  • Straining

The filtrate is strained after extraction using muslin cloth.

  • Formulating

The additives and sweetener are added appropriately.

  • Mixing

The additives and sweetener are properly mixed.

  • Filtering

The drink is filtered and transferred to the holding tank.

  • Filling

The filtered drink is filled into appropriate packaging material.

  • Pasteurizing

The bottled drink is pasteurized at appropriate temperature over a period of time.

  • Cooling and Labeling

The drinks are allowed to cool after which the bottles are labeled.


The bottles are shrink-wrapped in cartons ready for sales.

Production programme

Production programme for a small to medium scale Zobo production and preservation plant is as follows:

Production Days/Annum : 300

Production Volume/Day          :   1,500L

Production Volume/Annum : 450,000L

Based on the above assumptions, the proposed five-year production programme is shown on table 1.

Proposed Five-Year Production Programme

Year Quantity (L) Quantity (Bottles –pcs)

1                 315,000                630,000

2                 337,500                675,000

3                  360,000               720,000

4                 382,500                765,000

5                  405,000               810,000

Labour requirement

The required manpower for successful operation of this venture consists of both skilled and unskilled personnel. These consist of the production, administrative/account and marketing personnel.  Staff matters, finance/account, store management, security, purchasing and other administrative functions are handled by the administration/account division, while the production division takes charge of production.

Marketing activities are the responsibilities of all the staff especially the marketing division staff. About twenty-five (25) personnel are required for the project to take off.

Total initial capital investment

Initial Fixed Capital N12,937,300.00

Initial Working Capital N6,561,480.00

Pre-production Expenses N681,230.00

Contingencies N759,000.50

Total N20,939,010.50

NB: The initial fixed capital includes factory building, machinery and equipment, generator, project vehicle, office furniture and equipment and bore hole.

Annual production cost estimates N’000

Average Production Cost/Bottle (50Cl): N63.41


Profitability indicators

Return on Investment                                             (Year 1) 35.8%

Return on Equity                                 (Year 1) 86.0%

Net Profit to Sales                                12.1%

Gross Profit to Sales                           20.6%

Profitability Index                               1.9

Breakeven Point                                   (Year 1) 64.6%

Payback Period                                     1.5Years

Net Present Value @                           25%   N198,830.00


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