Zobo as popularly known in Nigeria, is Hibiscus Roselle, which is also in different countries with different names.
It is grown in many countries, such as Nigeria, Burma, Thailand, Lao PDR, Senegal, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, Niger, the Congo, France, the Gambia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Namibia, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Indonesia, Malaysia, China and Zambia.
It has antihypertensive properties. It is also cultivated for the production of bast-fibre from the stem of the plant. The fibre is used as a substitute for jute. Hibiscus, specifically Roselle, has been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, mild laxative, and treatment for cardiac and nerve diseases and cancer.
There is an enormous demand for various types of drinks and beverages in Nigeria. Many homes and indeed many individuals in Nigeria today consume drinks and beverages on a fairly regular basis. For the elite homes, they constitute part of the basic items on the dinning table. In other cases, drinks and beverages come in handy to serve guests or as a readily affordable drink for quenching thirst. In hotels and restaurants, they are served with almost every meal ordered.
A big contributing factor to increasing demand for drinks and beverages is the fact that Nigerians are lovers of social functions. Major social engagements at weekends and sometimes during week days are ceremonies such as: wedding, burial, birthday party, housewarming, thanksgiving, etc., drinks and beverage are served in all these occasions.
The raw material i.e Roselle Calyces is grown in commercial quantities especially in the northern part of Nigeria. Table 1 shows some states and local government areas in Nigeria where Roselle is readily available in commercial quantity. Other additives/preservatives are readily available in Nigerian industrial raw materials markets.
Machinery and equipment
The major machinery and equipment for Zobo drink production and preservation include: Zobo extractor, Pasteurizer, Filter-Mixer, transfer pump, Holding tank, Shrink wrapper, and accessories.
The cost depends on the capacity which could vary from 500L/day to 5,000L/day.
Small scale zobo drink production plant
The basic unit operations in Zobo production and preservation are:
The Roselle Calyces are thoroughly cleaned to remove dirt.
The ingredients i.e. the leaves and the preservatives are weighed appropriately.
- Washing and Draining
The weighed calyces are washed and allowed to drain.
The washed calyces are blanched in boiling water for extraction.
The filtrate is strained after extraction using muslin cloth.
The additives and sweetener are added appropriately.
The additives and sweetener are properly mixed.
The drink is filtered and transferred to the holding tank.
The filtered drink is filled into appropriate packaging material.
The bottled drink is pasteurized at appropriate temperature over a period of time.
- Cooling and Labeling
The drinks are allowed to cool after which the bottles are labeled.
The bottles are shrink-wrapped in cartons ready for sales.
Production programme for a small to medium scale Zobo production and preservation plant is as follows:
Production Days/Annum : 300
Production Volume/Day : 1,500L
Production Volume/Annum : 450,000L
Based on the above assumptions, the proposed five-year production programme is shown on table 1.
Proposed Five-Year Production Programme
Year Quantity (L) Quantity (Bottles –pcs)
1 315,000 630,000
2 337,500 675,000
3 360,000 720,000
4 382,500 765,000
5 405,000 810,000
The required manpower for successful operation of this venture consists of both skilled and unskilled personnel. These consist of the production, administrative/account and marketing personnel. Staff matters, finance/account, store management, security, purchasing and other administrative functions are handled by the administration/account division, while the production division takes charge of production.
Marketing activities are the responsibilities of all the staff especially the marketing division staff. About twenty-five (25) personnel are required for the project to take off.
Total initial capital investment
Initial Fixed Capital N12,937,300.00
Initial Working Capital N6,561,480.00
Pre-production Expenses N681,230.00
NB: The initial fixed capital includes factory building, machinery and equipment, generator, project vehicle, office furniture and equipment and bore hole.
Annual production cost estimates N’000
Average Production Cost/Bottle (50Cl): N63.41
Return on Investment (Year 1) 35.8%
Return on Equity (Year 1) 86.0%
Net Profit to Sales 12.1%
Gross Profit to Sales 20.6%
Profitability Index 1.9
Breakeven Point (Year 1) 64.6%
Payback Period 1.5Years
Net Present Value @ 25% N198,830.00